ISSN : 2733-4538
Personality characteristics as biological factors contribute to subjective well-being of the elder much more than demographic variables do. According to Costa &. McCrae's model, extraversion which made up of traits of sociability, tempo, vigor and social involvement, is associated with positive affect and higher levels of happiness, whereas neuroticism which made up of traits of anxiety, anger, impulsivity, psychosomatic complaints, is associated with negative affect and lower levels of happiness. This study attempted to find out the relationship between personality dimension(E,N) and subjective well being of the elder based on the Costa & McCrae's model. The EPQ, the Hopeless scale, the MUNSH and the Happiness scale were administrated to 71 subjects aged over 55(31 males and 40 females). The results supported experimental hypotheses and it is obviously concluded that personality characteristics are suggested as more important variables than any other demographic variables to account for subjective well-being.
In order to find out activation level change on a day, 100 college students(50 males and 50 females) were asked to complete short form of the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List(AD ACL: Thayer, 1978 b) twice a day(morning and afternoon). Dimension A activation which varies with circadian rhythm is the energetic arousal dimension and Dimension B activation which underlies emotional and stress reactions is tense arousal dimension. Results were found that the level of dimension A activation reduced in the afternoon more than in the morning significantly and the degree of this reduction made a significant difference between sex. The level of Dimension B activation also reduced in the afternoon more than in the morning but not significantly. From these results it would be concluded that the subjects' activation levels varied from energy-calmness to tiredness-calmness under the situation of moderate levels of energy expenditure.
This study was purported to compare the Alocholic's encoding strategy with that of control group. Sixteen randomly ordered categorical items were presented with encoding cue or no encoding cue. A two-way analysis of variance revealed the significant effect of patient population. However, there was no significant effects of encoding cue condition.
This study investigated the stressful life event, mood, coping strategy and social support of a high school student group. The information was gathered through structured interviews with a sample of 178 students from 20 high schools in Seoul area by stratified random sampling. The findings are summed up as follows. Free responses of stressful life events were categorized into 13 areas. Among these, highly stressful areas, each of which contributed to more than 10% of the total stressful life events, were as follows: difficulties arising within their academic achievement(27.2%), conflicts with their peer(21.2%), problems that occur within the family system(19.2%) and problems with the school activity (13.5%). Coping strategies the students used when they experienced stress were mostly passive ones such as seeking emotional support and avoidant behavior. Whereas active coping strategies such as problem solving activity and information gathering were manifested less frequently. And this finding suggests that the students generally had inappropriate coping strategies. It is surprising that they tended to prefer their friends as a supporter to their parents or school teachers when they distressed. This means that the supporting function of their parents or school teachers is relatively weak. The results were discussed with respect to adjustment problems of the high school students. On this basis, directions and implications for prevention and educational program were discussed and suggested.
The Leyton Obsessional Inventory(Cooper, 1970) was modified into a paper-and-pencil form to facilitate its group administration. Verification of reliability, validity and factor structure was carried out on the modified version replies of 426 students(middle school students ; 140, high school students ; 126, college students ; 160). Cronbach's alpha-coefficient was used to calculate the internal consistency of the inventory, and turned out to be .86. The same consistency index was calculated for each of the four subscales. In this case, the alpha coefficients were .84(symptom), .61(trait), .84(resistance), and .86(interference). For the test-retest results with one week interval, the product-moment correlation coefficients were .80(symptom), .83(trait), .86(resistance), .86(interference), and .84(total). Validity was evaluated using scores of the LOI measures and scores of SCL-90-R. Correlations of the LOI measures and SCL-90-R measure were .25(symptom), .12(trait), .32(resistance), .33(interference), and .22(total). Subjects' responses to the inventory were studied by factor analysis. The principal-component method was used, with repetitions followed by Varimax rotation. Eight factors were identified, explaining 63.4% of the variance. These factors may be described as follows ; I : Order and tidiness, II : Perfectionism, III : Dirt and contamination, IV : Repetition, V : Checking, VI : Cleanliness, VII : Unpleasant anticipation, VIII : Cautiousness. The requirement of further study for the standardization and development of LOI short-form and child version were emphasized.
We investingated the effects of bilateral ECT on the memory in schizophrenic or schizophreniform patients by using BGT and information subscale of KWIS. Patients were tested three times ; 1) 1 week prior to ECT 2) within 6 hours of the 6 ECT 3) two weeks after final EGT. Results on BGT showed a significant impairement on second testing followed by full recovery 2 weeks later for ECT group compared with mached controls. But, on the results of information the difference between ECT group and no ECT group was not significant.
On the assumption that the structure of attitude is differentiated in to descriptive and evaluative dimensions, this study investigated that the degree of dimensional differentiation is mediated by the stress buffering effects. In experiment I, it was revealed that the lower the level of dimensional differentiation is, the more subject's affect is involved in conflict processing. In experiment II, it was found that the more differentiated the structure of attitude, the less persisted the post divisional strain in conflict processing. It was interpreted that the degree of dimensional differentiation influenced to the stressful stimuli more after decision making than did before. These results were discussed focusing on the difference between affective and cognitive modes of conflict processing.
Many researches examined the role of cognition in depression. These researches tested the Beck`s cognitive model of depression or the learned helplessness model of depression. Three broad areas of cognitive functioning in depression are examined : Judgment of contingency or performance expectations, attributional processes, and information processing. In this paper, researches examining the information processing in depression are reviewed mainly. The available empirical evidences are suggestive of negative cognitive tendencies in severely depressed individuals. The hypothesis that negative cognition is the cause of depression is not consistently supported. The empirical literature suggests that the depressive recycling processes between negative cognition and depression are likely to contribute to the maintenance of depressive reaction. Additionally, some issues to be considered for future research are discussed.